Cons consolidating police agencies
One of those services is the Indian Police Service, which trains officers for the police forces of the states and big cities, such as New Delhi and Mumbai (Bombay).
Although police leaders are trained at least in part by the Indian Police Service, the various states and main cities have different police forces with their own specific features, making for a complex policing structure.
It has been argued that the nation would suffer, and local governments would be enfeebled, should all offenses become federal offenses and all police power be transferred to Washington, D. Local problems require local remedies, according to this view.
On the other hand, it also has been argued that the integration and consolidation of police forces would reduce costs and increase efficiency.
India also has central security agencies, such as the Border Security Force, the Central Reserve Police Force, and the National Security Guard, which specialize in counterterrorism.
Although they are national services, their members may be dispatched to particular areas to help solve local problems.
Whether operating at the national or provincial levels, SAPS is under the command of a single national commissioner.
These generalizations on policing in Africa allow for other exceptions as well; for instance, Eritrea, Ethiopia, and Uganda developed their own mixtures of federal (centralized) and regional (decentralized) policing in the postcolonial era.
Like many other countries of Latin America, Brazil also possesses a military police force that is controlled by the armed forces, as are the gendarmeries in Europe.
Although there are tens of thousands of police forces throughout the United States, the majority of them consist of just a few officers.
The existing American police structure to some extent reflects public opposition to any concentration of police power.
There are five major types of police agency: (1) the federal system, consisting of the Department of Homeland Security and the Department of Justice, including the FBI, the Drug Enforcement Administration, the Secret Service, the Postal Inspection Service, and many others; (2) police forces and criminal investigation agencies established by each of the 50 states of the union; (3) sheriffs’ departments in several thousand counties, plus a few county police forces that either duplicate the sheriffs’ police jurisdictions or displace them; (4) the police forces of about 1,000 cities and more than 20,000 townships and New England towns; and (5) the police of some 15,000 villages, boroughs, and incorporated towns.
To this list must be added special categories, such as the police of the District of Columbia; various forces attached to authorities governing bridges, tunnels, and parks; university, or “campus,” police forces; and some units that police special districts formed for fire protection, soil conservation, and other diverse purposes.
United States has what may be the most decentralized police system in the world, characterized by an extraordinary degree of duplication and conflicting jurisdiction.